- are involved in active learning,
- acquires positive attitude towards the learning process,
- improve their work routine,
- improve problem solving abilities and
- acquires self-esteem.
There are different views of PBL process. One of the comprehensive models of PBL expectation was created by Buck Institute for Education and depicted in the heptagon. The essential elements are also explained in a video (PBL: Explained: http://youtu.be/LMCZvGesRz8).
The PBL essential elements illustrates significant content and 21st century skills that are essential in classroom today and connects students to the real world experience (BIE, 2012). These six essential elements of PBL are the six reasons why PBL is applicable in a flipped classroom:
Significant Content and 21st Century skills
- In-depth inquiry: Students ask questions, search for answers, and arrive at conclusions, leading them to construct something new: an idea, an interpretation, or a product.
- Driving Question (open-ended): This focuses students’ work and deepens their learning by framing important issues, debates, challenges or problems.
- Public audience:
Students present their work to other people, beyond their classmates
and teacher – in person or online. Presentation increases students’
motivation to do high-quality work, and adds to the authenticity of the
- Need to know: Project Based Learning reverses the order in which information and concepts are traditionally presented. A typical unit with a “project” add-on begins by presenting students with knowledge and concepts and then, once gained, giving students the opportunity to apply them. Project Based Learning begins with the vision of a product or presentation. This creates a context and reason to learn and understand the information and concepts.
- Student voice and choice: Students learn to work independently and take responsibility when they are asked to make choices. The opportunity to make choices, and to express their learning in their own voice, also helps to increase students’ educational engagement.
- Revision and reflection. Students learn to give and receive feedback in order to improve the quality of the products they create, and are asked to think about what and how they are learning.
Revision and reflection of PBL products requires a clear and concise rubric. Students’ product(s) is a result of rigorous and relevant experience and therefore the grading criteria should not overlook any aspect of the work input that produced the output. Students self and peer assessment of their work enhance their self-esteem and the PBL process since students value their peers feedback. The following is a sample PBL checklist that can be used in oral presentation: http://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/view.php?id=371403
The 3Cs of PBL
From the BIE 21st century skills model, three components stand out as overarching PBL experience. Students are in involved in critical thinking, collaboration, and communication that are all essential components in the real world.
ResourcesBuck Institute for Education (2012). What is pbl? Retrieved from
Gulbahar, Y., & Tinmaz, H. (2006). Implementing Project-Based Learning and E-Portfolio Assessment in an Undergraduate Course. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 309-327.
Mwangi, M. (2011). Impact of Integrating Educational Technology in Science Lessons At an Urban
School in the State Of Georgia: Student Learning Perspectives. Argosy University. (Dissertation)
Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning.
Retrieved from http://www.bobpearlman.org/BestPractices/PBL_Research.pdf